Overview[ edit ] A botnet is a logical collection of Internet -connected devices such as computers, smartphones or IoT devices whose security have been breached and control ceded to a third party.
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Each compromised device, known as a "bot", is created when a device is penetrated by software from a malware malicious software distribution. The controller of a botnet is able to direct the activities of these compromised computers through communication channels formed by standards-based network protocolssuch as IRC and Hypertext Transfer Protocol HTTP.
Traditionally, bot programs are constructed as clients which communicate via existing servers.
This allows the bot herder the person controlling the botnet to perform all control from a remote location, which obfuscates the traffic. These P2P bot programs perform the same actions as the client-server model, but they do not require a central server to communicate.
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Client-server model[ edit ] A network based on the client-server model, where individual clients request services and resources from centralized servers The first botnets on the internet used a client-server model to accomplish their tasks.
Typically, these botnets operate through Internet Relay Chat networks, domains, or websites. Infected clients access a predetermined location and await incoming commands from the server. The bot herder sends commands to the server, which relays them to the clients.
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Clients execute the commands and report their results back to the bot herder. The bot herder sends commands to the channel via the IRC server.
Each client retrieves the commands and executes them. Clients send messages back to the IRC channel with the results of their actions.
These bots may use digital signatures so that only someone with access to the private key can control the botnet. Gameover ZeuS and ZeroAccess botnet.
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Newer botnets fully operate over P2P networks. Rather than communicate with a centralized server, P2P bots perform as both a command distribution server and a client which receives commands. In order to find other infected machines, the bot câștigurile pe rețelele bot probes random IP addresses until it contacts another infected machine. The contacted bot replies with information such as its software version and list of known bots.
If one of the bots' version is lower than the other, they will initiate a file transfer to update. Core components[ edit ] A botnet's originator known as a " bot herder " or câștigurile pe rețelele bot master" controls the botnet remotely.
Prezentare generală[ modificare modificare sursă ] Un botnet este o colecție logică de dispozitive conectate la Internetcum ar fi computerul, smartphone-ul sau dispozitive IoT a căror securitate a fost compromisă deja, putând fii controlată de o a treia parte.
The program for the operation must communicate via a covert channel to câștigurile pe rețelele bot client on the victim's machine zombie computer. A bot herder creates an IRC channel for infected clients to join. Messages sent to the channel are broadcast to all channel members.
The bot herder may set the channel's topic to command the botnet. An example response :bot1! The implementation differences can be used for detection of botnets.
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Botnets of zombie computers are often used to spread e-mail spam and launch denial-of-service attacks. Most owners of zombie computers are câștigurile pe rețelele bot that their system is being used in this way.
Because the owner tends to be unaware, these computers are metaphorically compared to zombies. A coordinated DDoS attack by multiple botnet machines also resembles a zombie horde attack. Many computer users are unaware that their computer is infected with bots.
Bots are added to the botnet by using a scanning script, the scanning script is run on an external server and scans IP ranges for telnet and SSH server default logins.
Once a login is found it is added to an infection list and infected with a malicious infection line via SSH on from the scanner server.
When the SSH command is run it infects the server and commands the server to ping to the control server and becomes its slave from the malicious code infecting it. IRC[ edit ] IRC networks use simple, câștigurile pe rețelele bot bandwidth communication methods, making them widely used to host botnets. They tend to be relatively simple in internet câștigă dolari în and have been used with moderate success for coordinating DDoS attacks and spam campaigns while being able to continually switch channels to avoid being taken down.
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However, in some cases, merely blocking of certain keywords has proven effective in stopping IRC-based botnets. Câștigurile pe rețelele bot problem with using IRC is that each bot client must know the IRC server, port, and channel to be of any use to the botnet. Anti-malware organizations can detect and shut down these servers and channels, effectively halting the botnet attack.
If this happens, clients are still infected, but they typically lie dormant since they have no way of receiving câștigurile pe rețelele bot. If one of the servers or channels becomes disabled, the botnet simply switches to another. It is still possible to detect and disrupt additional botnet servers or channels by sniffing IRC traffic. A botnet adversary can even potentially gain knowledge of the control scheme and imitate the bot herder by issuing commands correctly.
Some have also used encryption as a way to secure or lock down the botnet from others, most of the time when they use encryption it is public-key cryptography and has presented challenges in both implementing it and breaking it. Domains[ edit ] Many large botnets tend to use domains rather than IRC in their construction see Rustock botnet and Srizbi botnet. They are usually hosted with bulletproof hosting services. A zombie computer accesses a specially-designed webpage or domain s which serves the list of controlling commands.
Disadvantages of using this method are that it uses a considerable amount of bandwidth câștigurile pe rețelele bot large scale, and domains can be quickly seized by government agencies without much trouble or effort. If the domains controlling the botnets are not seized, they are also easy targets to compromise with denial-of-service attacks.
Fast-flux DNS can be used as a way to make it difficult to track down the control servers, which may change from day to day. While these free DNS services do not themselves host attacks, they provide reference points often hard-coded into the botnet executable. Removing such services can cripple an entire botnet.